Efficiency of Exploiting Natural Resources through Natural Parks: Taza National Park is an Example Model, Jijel – Algeria

Assia Lifa Nahal
Constantine – Algeria
assianahal@yahoo.fr

Introduction:

Nature is abundant with diversified natural resources that are considered important to man’s life and its continuity. Regretfully, these resources were exposed to different kinds of deterioration and misuse, and we can highlight the most important elements of natural resources that manifested in the distribution of land and water on the earth; features of earth surface; geological components and mineral resources; climate and bioclimatic styles; freshwater resources; and natural energy resources. The natural resources were classified as follows:

  • Formulation Classification: Organic and nonorganic resources.
  • Productive Classification: Capability of natural resources for meeting permanently man’s requirements, whether renewable, nonrenewable or permanent.
  • Locational Classification: focusing on the location in which the natural resources are available or concentrated, whether they are limited, unlimited or available anywhere.

The individual’s or community’s recognition of the efficiency of exploiting natural resources and the necessity of preserving their essential elements became one of the most important challenges facing our world today. For this purpose, countries are working on enacting laws and legislations aimed at preserving natural resources; among which the legislations prescribed by the establishment of national sanctuaries for protecting the different ecological systems, besides enlightening community’s individuals of the importance of maintaining them, as well as calling upon the different organizations and institutions to rehabilitate the deteriorated areas and rationalizing the exploitation of natural resources, like the development of plan lands in Algeria. That is why we want to shed light on the wise exploitation of natural resources in Algeria through a model related to humid coastal area.

1. Establishment of Taza National Park:

The word “Taza” according to the Amazighian language means the plain stone. The importance of this area was highlighted during the presence of Othmani Empire in this state in general and in this area in particular. Since 1750, the Othmani state used to exploit forests for extracting wood for ship building and supporting its fleet. The same happened during the French colonialism, which worked since 1862 on exploiting the lands in this area. And the establishment of this National Park dates back to the French era as per the Decree 23 issued in August 1923 which was amended in September 3, 1927 where Dar Al-Wad forests of 130 hectares and Al-Goroush forests of 70 hectares were annexed to this National Park.

After the independence and till the year 1984 a Presidential Decree No. 84-328 dated November 3, 1984 was issued prescribing the establishment of Taza National Park on a space of 3,807 hectares, which is considered one of three coastal sanctuaries in Algeria.

The purpose of Taza National Park aimed at:

  • Preserving all resources.
  • Preserving environment from any irrational exploitation, especially from industrial use.
  • Studying the natural growth and ecological balances.
  • Providing disciplinary entertainment within the National Park environment.
  • Instilling ecological awareness in people and in children in particular for the purpose of developing their conduct towards environment and their involvement in the protection of nature.
  • 2. Geographic Location & Climate of Taza National Park in Jijil:

    The National Park is located in a mountainous area to the east of Algeria and extends on an extendable space of about 3,807 hectares. The National Park is distributed to three municipalities: Al-Awana Municipality to the north; Al-Zayama Mansouriya Municipality to the west; and Salma Municipality to the east. The national park looks on Jijil corniche and on the Mediterranean Sea, and extends all along the coast for 32 km and all along the National Road No. 43 leading to the summit of Townert Mountain and Al-Tabboula Valley till the tip of Al-Karn Mountain, with sub-water course of Tabboula Valley to the east. This area consisted principally of rocky coastal area, bays and sandy beaches as illustrated on map No. 1. The Mediterranean climate prevails in this area, which is moderate and raining in winter and dry warm in summer. Regarding that the national park is located in the rainiest region in the country which receives from 1,000 to 1,400 Mm of rainwater annually.

3. Natural Resources in Taza National Park:

A. Plants: represent more than 75% of the National Park space, most of which consist of cork oat, beech oat, afras oat, forests and pastures. Besides, the National Park is abundant with varieties of plants of 484 species.

There are more than 65 species of wild plants in the islands located on the coastal line adjacent to the National Park, which were identified within the framework of study under the title “Diversification of Plants in Islands Environments in Jijil Area”. However, more than 75% of the plants located in the National Park included three kinds of oat trees: cork, beech and afras. While Al-Koroush forest extends on 8,584 hectares rich with variety of very beautiful trees. There we find rare plants that are not available elsewhere, in addition to rare preserved species of animals like the blue bird.

Most Important Trees Available in the National Park:

B. Animals: The National Park includes wide species of animals of about 24 species of mammals, among which 16 species protected by the law as per Decree No. 509-83 dated August 20, 1983, which include Moroccan monkey, mongoose, otter, wildcat, rabbit, jackal and buzzard, in addition to the sea animal resources represented in 492 species, like shells, sea turtle, fish. Moreover, there are 134 species of birds, including blue bird that is representing the logo of the national National Park, in addition to 89 passerines, 24 predatory birds, 21aquatic and sea birds.

C. Fantastic Caves: This cave is located at a distance of 35 km to the northwest of Jijil State that is affiliated to Ziama Mansouriya Municipality, which was accidentally discovered in 1917 while performing the National Road between the two cities of Jijil and Bjaya, and was classified for the first time in 1948. Then, it was reclassified as a natural preserved site managed by Ziama Mansouriya Municipality, which coincided by the establishment of Taza National National Park. By virtue of its geographic location, the Municipality began protecting the peculiarity of this cave from the year 1992. Recently, this cave was classified by the Ministry of Energy & Mining on the date of 18/11/2008 as per the request of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development – General Forests Directorate – as Taza National National Park.

4. Marine National Park in Future:

The environmental and biological studies of the marine area of Taza National National Park for the establishment of marine National Park in Essmal, Algeria 2002-2007 revealed the presence of marine biological and ecological diversification in the lands adjacent to the National Park which included plants, animals and natural landscapes on the coastal line. Such data are likely to support the integration and protection of marine lands in the National Park area.

Conclusion

For preserving the natural resources and their efficient exploitation, this calls for the availability of materials resources on one part, and for providing our support on the other through publishing environment education among community individuals in particular, and on the local, regional and global level in general.

References

  • 1. Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development – Forests Directorate: Report about Taza National Park Work Plan 2010-2014.
  • 2. Issa Ali Ibrahim: Geography of Development & Environment, Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabia 2010.
  • 3. Ahmed Milha: Environment Challenges in Algeria, Al-Najah Printing Press, April 2000.
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